题目：The experienced preference method: Does air pollution affect happiness?
简介: This paper presents a structural equation model of happiness, as influenced by inter alia perceived risk due to (i) intensity of exposure to polluted air, and (ii) hazard of pollutants. In addition, objective risk measured as proximity to the pollution source, is considered. The main finding is that both types of perceived risk negatively and significantly influence people’s happiness, although in absolute terms, the total perceived risk effect is less than the (positive) effect of ability, measured by income and education. Other important determinants of happiness are family size, age, proximity to the pollution source, work environment and current health condition. Perceived risk due to intensity of exposure is influenced by environmental knowledge and proximity to the pollution source; perceived risk of hazard by ability, environmental knowledge, family size, family health experience and proximity to the pollution source. Environmental knowledge is found to be a function of age, ability and work environment. On the basis of the findings, we conclude that reducing air pollution is an important policy measure to ameliorate happiness. As environmental knowledge is an important determinant of perceived risk, reduction policies should be accompanied by disclosure of the state of air quality. We introduce a panel model with a nonparametric functional coefficient of multiple arguments. The coefficient is a function both of time, allowing temporal changes in an otherwise linear model, and of the regressor itself, allowing nonlinearity. In contrast to a time series model, the effects of the two arguments can be identified using a panel model. We apply the model to the relationship between real GDP and electricity consumption. Our results suggest that the corresponding elasticities have decreased over time in developed countries, but that this decrease cannot be entirely explained by changes in GDP itself or by sectoral shifts.
Henk Folmer is a professor of research methodology and spatial econometrics, University of Groningen, The Netherlands. He is the founding father of the European Association of Environmental and Resource Economics and its first president, a Fellow of The Regional Science Association International, and holds an honorary doctorate from the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, for his contributions to environmental and resource economics. He has initiated International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics and Letters in Spatial and Resource Economics and is currently co-editor in chief of both. He also serves on the editorial board of 6 international journals including Annals of Regional Science, Environmental and Resource Economics, and Journal of Regional Science.
Prof. Folmer has taught and lectured in the areas of environmental and resource economics, (spatial) econometrics, research methodology, the integration of economics, sociology and psychology, labor economics, game theory, climate change and regional economic policy. He has been an advisor to the European Commission on the Single European Market and the Environment, and to the Dutch government on green taxation and on the management of the Wadden Sea. He has given seminars and been visiting professor at universities in China, Indonesia, India, Vietnam, Kenya, Tanzania, USA, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica and most EU countries. He supervised 34 Ph.D. candidates (including ZhongXiang Zhang who joined Fudan recently after giving up a position of Director of Research at one large intergovernmental organization in the capital of one OECD country) and is currently supervising 12 Ph.D. students.